This is my assignment for Pancasila and Citizenship courses when I was an undergraduate student at Electrical Engineering, Udayana University and I translated to English. This assignment has never been published anywhere and I, as the author and copyright holder, license this assignment customized CC-BY-SA where anyone can share, copy, republish, and sell on condition to state my name as the author and inform that the original and open version available here.
Chapter 1 Introduction
Earth Day is an activity celebrated every 22 April to support environmental conservation activities. Originally Earth Day was celebrated in 1970, April 22 only in the United States. It was said that in 1990 Earth Day became one of the world days, including Indonesia, which was previously only celebrated in the United States. When viewed from the background, Earth Day comes from outside cultures. There are still many who question the appropriateness of being celebrated in Indonesia. This assignment will discuss Earth Day from the perspective of Pancasila, its natural relationship and its appropriateness to be celebrated in Indonesia.
- Should Earth Day be celebrated in Indonesia or not?
- Are there any deviations in Indonesian culture in celebrating Earth Day?
To see Earth Day celebrations from the Pancasila perspective of natural relations.
Get clarity about Earth Day celebrations in Indonesia.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
- For all regions in Indonesia.
- Just a comparison of the Pancasila theory of natural relations with Earth Day.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Pancasila (Indonesian: [pantʃaˈsila]) is the official, foundational philosophical theory of Indonesia. Pancasila comprises two Old Javanese words originally derived from Sanskrit: "pañca" ("five") and "sīla" ("principles"). Thus it is composed of five principles and contends that they are inseparable and interrelated (Wikipedia 2020):
- Belief in The One True God
- A fair-minded and civilized humanity
- Unity of Indonesia
- Democracy (from the people) led by Wisdom of consultation (of the) representatives (of the people)
- Social justice for every people of Indonesia
2.2 Earth Day
Every year, Earth Day - April 22 - marks the anniversary on which many say the modern environmental movement is in 1970. The stage of the hippie and flower-child culture in the United States, 1970 brings the death of Jimi Hendrix, the last Beatles album, and Simon & Garfunkel. "Bridge Over Troubled Water". Daily activity protests, but saving the planet is not the cause of protest. There was war in Vietnam, and the national students were increasingly against it.
At the time, the United States was inhaling lead gas through a large V8 sedan. An industry that produces dirty smoke and waste without worrying about the press and applicable laws, air pollution is generally accepted as the kiss of prosperity. "Environment" is a word that appears more frequently in spelling bees than in the evening news. With Rachel Carson's New York Times bestseller Silent Spring in 1962 aroused many in society for a change movement in preserving the environment and health.
Earth Day 1970 was capitalized on emerging awareness, channeling the enthusiasm of the anti-war protest movement and putting environmental issues front and center. The idea came from Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson, then US Senator from Wisconsin, after witnessing the damage caused by a large 1969 oil spill in Santa Barbara, California. Inspired by the student anti-war movement, he realized that if he could instill that passion with emerging public awareness about air and water pollution, it would force environmental protection onto the national political agenda. Senator Nelson announced the idea for "national teach-in on the environment" to the national media; persuaded Pete McCloskey, a member of the conservative Republican Party Congress, to serve as co-chair, and recruited Denis Hayes as national coordinator. Hayes built 85 national staffs to promote events across the country (Rogers, 2013).
As a result, on April 22, 20 million Americans took to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate a healthy and sustainable environment in a demonstration of coast-to-coast rallies. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against environmental damage. Groups that have been battling oil spills, pollution from factories and power plants, raw sewage, toxic waste, pesticides, roads, wilderness loss, and extinction of wildlife suddenly realize they are upholding the same values.
Earth Day 1970 achieved a rare political alignment, gaining support from Republicans and Democrats, rich and poor, urban raincoats and peasants, conglomerates and labor leaders. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and sections of Clean Air, Clean Water, and the Endangered Species Story. "It was a gamble," said Gaylord, "but it worked."
As 1990 approached, a group of environmental leaders asked Denis Hayes to organize another major campaign. This time, Earth Day has gone global, moving 200 million people in 141 countries and bringing environmental issues to the world stage. Earth Day 1990 gave a huge boost to recycling efforts around the world and helped pave the way for the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. It also prompted President Bill Clinton to award Senator Nelson the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1995) the highest honor given to civilians in the United States for his role as founder of Earth Day.
Approaching the millennium, Hayes agreed to open another campaign, this time focused on global warming and on promoting clean energy. With 5000 environmental groups in a record 184 countries reaching hundreds of millions of people, Earth Day 2000 combines the big-picture feistiness of the first Earth Day with the international grassroots activism Earth Day 1990. It uses the Internet to organize activists, but also features a talking drum chain that performs village-to-village trips in Gabon, Africa, and hundreds of thousands of people gather at the National Mall in Washington, DC. Earth Day 2000 sends world leaders a loud and clear message that citizens around the world want swift and decisive action on clean energy (Rogers, 2013).
Much like 1970, Earth Day 2010 comes at a time of great environmental challenge for society. Denying climate change, well-funded oil lobbyists, quiet politicians, interested publics, and a divided public environment all contribute to a powerful narrative that overshadows the causes of progress and change. Despite the challenges, for its 40th anniversary, the Earth Day Network is rebuilding Earth Day as a strong focal point around which people can demonstrate their commitment. The Earth Day Network brings 225,000 people to the National Mall for the Climate Rally, collects 40,000,000 environmental service actions towards its 2012 A Billion Green Story® goal, launches an international, 1 million tree planting initiative with Avatar director James Cameron and triples the online base for more of 900,000 community members (Rogers, 2013).
2.3 The values of Pancasila are the basis and direction of balance between rights and obligations
By understanding the values of the Pancasila principles, there will be several human relationships that create a balance between rights and obligations between these relationships, namely as follows (Sudarmojo, 2013):
- Vertical Relationship the human relationship with God Almighty as the incarnation of the values of the One God
- Horizontal Relationship human relations with each other both in their function as people and citizens. This relationship creates equal rights and obligations.
- Relationships with Nature natural relationship is the relationship between humans and the environment, which includes animals, plants, and nature with everything in it. The entire universe with everything in it is destined for human survival. Humans also have an obligation to preserve nature and the wealth in it. Nature also experiences shrinkage, while humans are growing, thus their needs also increase. Maintaining the preservation of nature is also a human obligation, because nature has contributed many things to human survival. The relationship between humans and nature must be balanced between obligations and rights, the same as the relationship between humans and society and humans and God. Pancasila is a view of life or ideology that regulates the relationship between humans and God, humans and their communities or nation, and humans and their natural environment. (Ihem, 2012)
Chapter 3 Discussion
3.1 Appropriateness of celebrating Earth Day in Indonesia
Based on the theory presented in this assignment, it can be stated that Earth Day is worthy of being celebrated in Indonesia. According to Rogers, 2013, Earth Day is celebrated to minimize oil spills, pollution of factories and power plants, raw waste, toxic waste, pesticides, roads, loss of wilderness, extinction of wildlife and others. Also mobilizing the mass to preserve the environment by increasing clean air, clean water, a healthy and balanced environment. If according to Sudarmojo, 2013, in Pancasila there is a vertical relationship, horizontal relationship and natural relationship, then this Earth Day is a positive thing for the natural relationship in Pancasila.
If according to Ihem, 2012, that Pancasila in natural relations says that humans also have an obligation to preserve nature and the wealth in it, nature also shrinks, while humans are growing, thus their needs also increase, preserving nature is also a human obligations, because nature has contributed many things to human survival, the relationship between humans and nature must be balanced between obligations and rights, just like the relationship between humans and society and humans with God, Earth Day is not recommended to be rejected in Indonesia because it has similar thoughts.
3.2 Earth Day Positive Impacts
In general terms, Earth Day has no flaws. Indonesia has enormous natural resources. Even a big thing can be destroyed if not properly maintained. Therefore the environment, health and balance in this country must be cared for. Earth Day Celebration is an effort to maintain this.
For the effect that we can feel everyday is cooler weather, less sickness, harmony with the surrounding plants and animals, therefore productivity increases and a peaceful life is achieved. Besides that, it is not only for Indonesia, but is global because humans live on one planet, namely Earth.
Chapter 4 Closing
Earth Day is declared worthy of being celebrated in Indonesia. Although Earth Day originates from outside, namely the United States, the Pancasila theory with Earth Day based on this assignment is in line. In fact, Earth Day supports the natural relationship contained in Pancasila. There is no deviation if Earth Day is celebrated in Indonesia. By celebrating Earth Day the Indonesian people preserve the environment, people's welfare can be achieved.
- Ihem, M. 2012. http://mikhaelihem.blogspot.com/2012/03/pengertian-pancasila-secara-filsafat.html. Access 1 May 2013.
- Rogers, K. 2013. http://www.earthday.org/earth-day-history-movement. Access 1 May 2013.
- Sudarmojo, Y. 2013. Pancasila & Kewarganegaraan TE058314 Teknik Elektro UNUD.
- Wikipedia, 2020. Pancasila. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancasila