Blue Flower

1. Introduction

In electric circuit star and delta circuit consist of 3 loads which in star circuit they are connected in form of a star while in delta circuit are connected in delta form as in Figure 1.

Star and Delta Connection Diagram
Figure 1. Star and Delta Connection Diagram

The application is usually used in (Alternate Current) AC motor where it has to start slowly. Starting the motor through a high current immediately could blow the motor as the starting current equals to the normal current multiplied by v3 (=v3 x I). It’ll be fine if the current is 5A (ampere) (I_start=v3 x 5 A=8.66 A), what happens if it’s 50A it’ll be (I_start=v3 x 50 A=86.6 A). The difference between 50A and 86.6A is quite significant. Therefore a switch to initially start a motor through star condition (low current) is needed, then after a while controlled by a time change the circuit to delta (high current). Full diagram can be seen in Figure 2.

Star and Delta Connection Diagram
Figure 2. Star Delta Motor Diagram

2. Simulation Design

For the experiment here we have limited resource, we don’t have the star-delta motor which made me think whether there’s an alternative to do the star-delta motor simulation. I got an idea of using a low voltage lamp or LED as an indicator by using the brightness of the lamp. Instead I’d use 3 resistors (1 K? for this experiment) to form both star and delta circuit. We’ll see the brightness of the lamp instar and delta circuit, and for this we’ll use Direct Current (DC). Since there’s only positive (+) and negative (-) for the source we need to figure out an alternate circuit (AC have 3 sources R-S-T). For star circuit is T circuit and for delta circuit is Pi circuit in DC as shown in Figure 3 (If I have time I’ll include the calculation). Figure 3 shows that the current passed through T circuit is smaller which should be used as initial circuit, and Pi circuit passed larger current which should be switched later afterwards.

Star and Delta Connection Diagram
Figure 3. T (Star) Circuit (Left) andPi (Delta) Circuit (Right)

To realize this experiment we used:

  • 24V DC adapter
  • 3 1K resistor
  • LEDs
  • 2 relays
  • Timer

An image of a simulation can be seen on Figure 4 where 1 relay as a switch to T circuit and the other one as a switch to Pi circuit. A simulation video using android application EveryCircuit is included on this same folder as this report excluding the timer. On the real application based on the ladder diagram on Figure 5 a timer will be set where initially will start the relay of T circuit (Pi circuit disconnected). After 2 seconds (or any set time) the timer will disconnect the relay of T circuit and connecting the relay of Pi circuit.

Star-Delta Circuit Simulation (left: star, right: delta)
Figure 4. Star-Delta Circuit Simulation (left: star, right: delta)
Ladder diagram of star-delta motor
Figure 5. Ladder diagram of star-delta motor

3. Experiment

Realizing simulation
Figure 6. Realizing simulation
As in Figure 6 we came to realize the simulation design from Figure 4. 3 LEDs for the indicator, 3 resistors put parallel, 2 relays for switching (1 as star circuit, 1 as delta circuit), Not to forget 24V power source, * And the device which was not drawn into the simulation is the timer. The timer is also a switching method which doesn’t supply power, (a mistake I once made directly connecting both positive (+) and negative (-) to the timer) but acts a switch to the power source. So 1 cable from the relay should connect to the power source (either + or -) the other one should connect to the timer then to the power source. As for the experiment here the star circuit I connect the (-) directly to the source and the (+) to pin 1 on the timer on Figure 7, then pin 4 of timer connects to the (+) of the source. Pin 1 and pin 4 is normally close (NC) which means pin 1 and pin 4 will connect until the designated time when the timer is turned on (here is set for 5 seconds, after that pin 1 and pin 4 disconnect. While for delta circuit uses pin 8 and pin 6, which is normally open (NO), which means it will connect after the designated time (5 seconds on this experiment) and disconnected before then. With this configuration we can realize the shift from star circuit to delta circuit. On the first 5 seconds the first relay for star circuit connects, and after 5 seconds it disconnects. The relay for delta circuit connects. The result is as in Figure 8 and Figure 9, initially will be star circuit which the LED shines no too bright, after 5 seconds it will change to Figure 9 to delta circuit which the LED shines brighter. The theory matches as per Figure 3 and Figure 4.
Time Circuit Diagram
Figure 7. Time Circuit Diagram
Condition in Star Circuit (dim)
Figure 8. Condition in Star Circuit (dim)
Condition in Delta Circuit (bright)
Figure 9. Condition in Delta Circuit (bright)

4. Conclusion

The simulation for this circuit succeeded and can be implemented to build a real star-delta motor. The motor will initially be slow, and then a few seconds the motor will be faster. This kind of design is used for devices which isn’t allowed to start at maximum power from the start (for example the motor could explode) since the initial current is v3 greater than the normal power thus a lower current is used when starting. But we want to use the device in its maximum power so a timer is needed to change the current to the maximum after passing the initial stage. Using relays and timers in terms of time we can create different conditions with just a few circuits. For example we can set the time of when we want the air conditioner to turn on or off (other machines as well).

1. Introduction

A chamber room in this experiment is known as an automation circuit. It’s designed to keep the room temperature at a certain degree. This chamber room is chosen as one of the training for automation.

Here we learned how to design our concept using ladder logic, and then realize the physical circuit by using a few automation devices. The purpose of this training is to introduce to few automation devices which are relay, contractor and thermal couple. We built an experimental chamber room based on the ladder diagram we designed.

2. Experiment Design

The chamber room how we wanted to work here is by using a heater to heat a room, when the room temperature is lower than the set temperature (cooler) the heater will be on to heat the room, but if it is higher (hotter) the heater will turn off. The heater will turn on again when the temperature drops.

Figure 1. Ladder diagram of chamber room
Figure 1. Ladder diagram of chamber room.

Figure 1 shows the ladder diagram of chamber room we wanted to make. The concept is locking the room temperature.

a. When the button is pushed an electric current will flow to relay R1 (pin 13 to 14) and activate thermocouple (RTC) while R1 (pin 9 to 5) will lock the current even if the push button is off (the light will remain on). The left side is the positive node connected to the power supply while the right side connects to the ground. The numbers on Figure 1 are pins which will be explain later on.

b. The thermocouple will activate the Contractor and activates the heater.

c. The thermocouple will sense the room temperature and when it reaches the set temperature (heats), the thermocouple will switch off (cut the line).

d. Electric current will stop flowing to contractor hence shutting down the heater.

e. After a while the room temperature will drop (cools down) and again activating the thermocouple (let current flow) and activates the contractor with the heater.

f. The cycle will go on locking the room temperature.

The relay (R1) is set to lock the flow of electric current to the thermocouple since we’re using a push button. Without it the circuit will turn off after we release the push button while we want it to keep turned on even if we release the push button.

For the ladder diagram above we use a push button, reset button, relay, thermocouple, contractor, and light bulb as an indicator while we use a solder to heat the heat sensor on the thermocouple. Figure 2 shows a relay:

a. as in Figure 1 pin 13 will connect to the reset button (source of 220 V) and pin 14 will go to the ground.

b. Pin 9 is normally close (NC) to pin 1 (it connects when no current flows),

c. but normally open (NO) to pin 5 (the switch from pin 9 will turn to pin 5 when current flows) thus locking the thermocouple even the push button is released.

d. The reset button will cut the flow if pressed.

Figure 2. 220V relay
Figure 2. 220V relay.

Figure 3 shows the thermocouple (focused on the circuit) which: a. pin 7 and 8 connects to the power supply like the relay. b. Same as the explanation for Figure 2 (relay) pin 4 is NC to pin 6 but NO to pin 5. c. The heat sensor will be connected to pin 1 and 2. d. When electric current flows pin 4 will connect to pin 5, e. and if the heat sensor is heated to certain degree, pin 4 will disconnect from pin 5 and connect to pin 6 which will cut off the heater.

Figure 4 is a contractor which in ladder diagram should not be needed (simplify) but in actual circuit the thermocouple cannot hold high electric current thus needs the help of a contractor. Since this is just a simple experiment we will use a light bulb as an indicator in replacement of heater. We will use an external heater which is a solder in heating the heat sensor.

Figure 3. Thermocouple
Figure 3. Thermocouple.
Figure 4. Contractor
Figure 4. Contractor.

3. Running the Experiment

Since it’s a practice we only connect the wires based on Figure 1, it’s not surprising that Figure 5 seems unpleasing to the eye. This will immediately be disassembled afterwards since the other devices will be use for other projects. It’ll be best to refer to this video first because it might be difficult to understand this writing if we don’t have experience in automation.

Figure 5. Experiment
Figure 5. Experiment.

In Figure 6, just pushing the push button once the light will turn and remain on. It’s because the relay is also connected to the power supply and is in connected position to the thermocouple. As of Figure 1 explanation the relay locks the current.

Then we tried heating the heat sensor using a solder in Figure 6. After while the lights goes out which proves our statement/explanation of Figure 4 (current won’t flow to bulb when heated to 100o C in this experiment). In Figure 7 the solder was released which lets the heat sensor to cool down and turned the light again. Figure 1 is the ladder diagram for the actual circuit, in Figure 8 is the simulation of what happen to the actual circuit which includes the heat sensor in the ladder diagram.

a. The heater turns on when the button is pushed heating the sensor.

b. We assumed that it takes 2 seconds to heat it up.

c. After 2 seconds (assumed reached targeted temperature) activates the sensor and will cut the line.

d. The heater will turn off.

Figure 6. Experiment
Figure 6. Affect in heating heat sensor
Figure 7. When heat sensor cools down
Figure 7. When heat sensor cools down
Figure 8. Simulation
Figure 8. Simulation

4. Conclusion

Above is only simulation of a chamber room not real experiment. While the chamber work like the Air Conditioner (AC), Iron, or oven which controls the surrounding temperature this one is only to simulate the use of thermocouple where the heat sensor is manually heated up with a solder, even the relay only functions to keep the circuit alive. Thus the experiment above allowed us to able to create a concept of chamber room, design the ladder diagram, and implement them through relays and thermocouple. In summary the experiment succeeded in simulating a chamber room. The light bulb is the indicator whether the temperature is below set point or above, it lights when it’s at low temperature. The heat sensor connected to thermocouple was heated using a solder and sets it to high temperature, ultimately kills the light bulb (cuts the electric current). It will turn on again when it cools down.



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Referral is an act of referring something to someone. A similar or maybe synonym words are affiliate and endorsement. In the Internet age, you can refer someone about something by sending a link that leads to the location of that something on the Internet, that is what referral link is. In most cases you are a third party that refers someone's product you will receive commissions for referring. For example, if you download Brave Browser using my link and use it for a month, I will receive a commission of $1 worth of BAT. "" is the website "faj135" is my unique referral code (note: not all referral link follow this style).

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Here are two posts that I read and, but I would like to summarize.

Most of us agreed: referral link should not be post naked.

Example of naked referral link is posting "" and that's it.

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Now this is a question that I want to ask. Which design is better? Which one is suitable for which?

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